Study of neuronal diversity in the Globus Pallidus: neurochemical analysis, electrophysiological and optogenetic manipulation of neural subtype in rodents.novembre 2013 Directeur(s) de thèse : Jérôme BAUFRETON Résumé de thèse
Globus Pallidus (GP in Rodents; GPe in Primates) which belongs to the indirect pathway of basal ganglia is often, if not always, considered as an homogeneous entity which simply relays striatal information through the subthalamic nucleus, downstream to the output of basal ganglia, the substantia nigra pars reticulata. Prototypical GP neurons are often described as fast-spiking GABAergic cells which express parvalbumin (PV) as a neurochemical marker. However, cellular heterogeneity in GP has been suggested by anatomical, neurochemical, fate mapping analysis and electrophysiological activity in vivo but a clear demonstration of the existence of distinct cell types in GP, which requires by definition correlation of electrophysiological activity with neurochemistry and structure, is still missing. The objective of my PhD was i) to determine if the expression of specific neuronal markers in GP neurons is correlated with specific electrophysiological properties, ii) to understand the function of identified cell types in motor control, in order to prove that neuronal diversity exists and matters in GP. We show that electrical activity and repertoire of ionic channels differ in PV-positive and FoxP2-positive neurons. We demonstrate that PV-positive neurons do project on downstream structures whereas FoxP2-positive neurons exclusively target striatum. We report that manipulating PV-positive neurons using optogenetics induce changes in motor behavior. Thus, our results contribute to highlight the function of GP in motor control.